Atlantis - Suddenness
At 07:20 PM 7/19/2004 -0400, you wrote:
Just an interesting note. Mammoth remains were recently found in
Maine and are displayed at the State Museum.
Of course the mammoth remains found in Maine are interesting in
themselves. They also do make a significant other point: the finding
of mammoths is not limited to Siberia. This will end up being a
relevant point for this exploration of Atlantis.
Here is a quote that may relate to the animal in Maine.
"While the northern animals were frozen solid in ground almost
instantly reduced to permafrost conditions, the mastodons, were
entombed in great avalanches of mud and salts that, upon consolidating,
often preserved many of their soft parts and sometimes even their
stomach contents." [Cataclysm p 122]
Also after you published your letter I have noted some other creatures
found within driving distance from where I live. They have been
found in Orange County, New York state in 1845, Hackett's Town New
Jersey, Jamestown New York in August 1871, Monmouth County, New
Jersey in 1823, Long Branch New Jersey found in 1823, and another
in Newburgh New York. All sites relatively close to home for me.
But what I am really concerned with is the issue of suddenness
of the disaster that the Pleistocene age was created to resolve.
How really abrupt was the disaster. To pursue I want to take a factor
that is fairly known to the list - the frozen Siberian mammoth -
and build upon that to explore the larger issue of suddenness.
For many years I thought there was only one frozen carcass found.
Now I have explained that the first one was found in 1772. Even
that is disputed. There are some records that suggest earlier. It
is said that the Tunguse, living in Siberia, have used unfreezing
mammoth carcasses for food for 1600 years.
"Based on the number of bones found and the use of old ivory
continuing even today, the original number of the mammoths in
Siberia and Alaska is estimated to be several hundred thousands,
maybe even millions, of animals." [From Darwin was Wrong p
Only ivory tusks that are from a recently deceased elephant or
from a frozen mammoth are useful for carving. Ivory carving requires
relatively fresh material. So there has been a huge market in recently
unfrozen mammoth tusks for a long time. I seem to remember 20,000
such tusks in 3 decades but I suspect I somehow have my figures
wrong. Here is a quote I just found: "The larger part of the
ivory, used for carving in Eastern Asia, even today comes from the
large ivory deposits in Siberia. These consist of tusks of long
extinct mammoths." [ibid p 79. published in 1998].
I don't seem able to find my Mammoth material at the moment but
I have read startling figures claiming something like half the trade
in ivory has come from Siberian sources of frozen mammoths in a
significant number of decades in recent times past.
These frozen mammoths have been found in a wide area - some 3,000
miles from Siberia to Alaska.
So we have many animals over a wide area.
Now to stomach contents.
Many people on this I guess are aware that undigested buttercups
have been found in the stomachs of the mammoths. Lets consider the
buttercups first. They grow in a warmer climate than Siberia. We
have also found in their stomachs undigested grasses that are known
to grow ONLY in more moderate climates.
Of course a problem develops. To freeze a mammoth so fast that
it does not rot and instead its stomach contents still remain undigested
requires a VERY fast freeze. How could it have happened?
But whatever happened, happened faster than that. In 1900 a frozen
mammoth was found in the Berezovka River. The unusual part was that
there was half-chewed food in the animal's mouth. The animal did
not have time to swallow before being overcome. The animal was found
in upright position.
Often one sees pictures of the mammoths in todays science textbooks
that represent a reconstructed image. What one usually sees is a
winter type environment in the picture. But this is not correct.
The mammoths did not have fur. They had straggly thin hair. It was
not enough to keep them warm. Moreover, their skin did not have
the proper oil for a cold climate. So they were not suited to a
cold climate and the pictures are in error.
We can note that a mammoth needs to eat a lot of vegetation. A
cold climate does not provide enough vegetation to supply the food
for the mammoth. So the mammoth had been living in a warm climate
not a frigid one.
Some more oddities. It wasn't only mammoths that had frozen.
Rhinoceros' were also found perfectly frozen. They are found today
only in warmer climates.
Other animals found frozen include: horses, rabbits, squirrels,
woverines, a vole and a lynx along with numerous more species. All
the list of animals lived or live today in warmer climates.
Plants were also frozen.
"While surveying the New Siberian Islands, Arctic explorer
Baron Eduard von Toll discovered the remains of a sabretooth- tiger
and those of a fruit tree with an original height of about 88 feet.
The tree had suddenly and completely been preserved by the ice,
including its ripe fruits, green leaves, roots and seeds, virtually
instantly frozen. Nowadays, the only plants to be found there are
creepers." [ibid p 80]
There is one last item called "muck" that also supports
the suddenness. I will quote at some length in order to convey the
point and then end the letter.
"Coincident with this dreadful slaughter upon the land was
the deposition far inland of myriads of contemporary marine shells,
and the stranding at great elevations of marine mammals such as
whales, porpoises, walruses and seals. Elsewhere, vast forests were
flattened and buried under equally vast accumulations of sand or
mud or piled up in broken and twisted heaps.. At some localities
plant remains were packed so densely and in such abundance as to
form lignite (soft brown coal akin to peat) beds of great extent,
while at others animal and plant remains were mixed together in
inexpressible confusion as heterogeneous masses. In Alaska, for
example, thick frozen deposits of volcanic ash, silts, sands boulders,
lenticles and ribbons of unmelted ice, and countless relics of late
Pleistocene animals and plants lie jumbled together in no discernible
order, This amazing deposit, usually referred to as 'muck', has
been described by Dr Rainey as containing: 'enormous numbers of
frozen bones extinct animals, such as the mammoth, mastodon, super
bison and horse, as well as brush, stumps, moss and freshwater molluscs.'
Hibben described these deposits in very similar language:
'In many places, Alaskan muck is packed with animal bones and debris
in trainload lots. Bones of mammoths, mastodons, several kinds of
bison, horses, w2olves, bears, and lions tell a story of a faunal
population ... within this frozen mass lie the twisted parts of
animals and trees intermingled with lenses of ice and layers of
peat and mosses. It looks as though in the midst of some cataclysmic
catastrophe of ten thousand years ago the whole Alaskan world of
living animals and plants was suddenly frozen in mid-motion in a
In another publication, the same author commented:
'Although the formation of the deposits of muck is not clear, there
is ample evidence that at least portions of this material were deposited
under catastrophic conditions.l Mammal remains are for the most
part dismembered and disarticulated, even though some fragments
yet retain, in their frozen state, portions of ligaments, skin,
hair and flesh. Twisted and torn trees are piled in splintered masses
... at least four considerable layers of volcanic ash may be traced
in these deposits, although they are extremely warped and distorted.'
All of this evidence suggests a global earth-wide sudden catastrophe
that was almost instant. When we solve the larger problem of this
enormous disaster, then we can more easily solve the lesser problem
of the sinking of the island of Atlantis. Indeed, to make room for
Atlantis within the science of geology, we need to loosen the grip
of the existing paradigm of geology - as I hope we agree has been
done - and then resolve the nature of this disaster. Then there
is room for Theosophy's Atlantis within the data of geology.
"No Religion Higher Than Truth"
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