THEOSOPHY, Vol. 10, No. 6, April, 1922
(Pages 170-179; Size: 33K)
(Number 28 of a 34-part series)
THE THEOSOPHICAL MOVEMENT(1)
HOW Olcott dealt with Mrs. Besant we shall soon see. How he dealt with Mr. Judge and the "worship of H.P.B." we have already witnessed in part and shall more and more be compelled to observe. When the "Message" in the August, 1891, "Path" came to his attention he wrote Mr. Judge. Then ensued a long private correspondence between the two, Judge doing his best to mollify and placate the President-Founder while yet holding fast to the position of uncompromising loyalty to H.P.B. and her Mission and to the policies he was pursuing; Olcott, determined to bring matters to an issue once and for all and enforce his own authority and standing as the "Official Head" of the Society. Olcott's strategy and tactics were grievously interfered with and upset for the time being by Mrs. Besant's charges against his moral character which caused him to "retire from the field of battle" by resigning under fire. When Judge came to his support and rescue the better nature of Col. Olcott was once more in the saddle, and his public and official, as well as his private and personal, acts and statements became once more for a brief period those of the earlier years of his probation. But when it was whispered in his ear that it was Judge himself who had concocted the charges against him, with the purpose to unseat him in the love and veneration of the membership, and that Judge had only come to his aid through fear of being unmasked, Olcott, old, sick and disheartened, threw off his faintheartedness, once more girded on his armor and weapons and re-entered the lists for a combat a l'outrance, "for the sake of the Masters and the Society," as he verily believed. It never occurred to him to write Judge direct and ask the facts; it never occurred to him to investigate or verify in any way the suspicions breathed to him. His vanity pricked, his jealousies aroused, his own sincerity and devotion mocked, as it must have seemed to him, he was thenceforth until the end as sure of the "ingratitude" and the "disloyalty" of Judge to him as before he had been of H.P.B.'s. His fiery courage, his impetuous nature, all his noble and strong qualities, were thenceforth blindly at the service of the masked and hidden enemies of the Theosophical Movement. Such is the inevitable calamity which must befall every probationer of the "Second Section" who turns aside from the pledge and rules which he has given his "most sacred word of honour" to obey, and which are given to him alike for his guidance and his protection.
When Mrs. Besant was on her third visit to America in the winter of 1892-3, Mr. Judge showed her the correspondence with Olcott. One of the letters of Mr. Judge was in reply and discussion on questions raised by Col. Olcott on the "message" in the "Path" of August, 1891. Mrs. Besant asked and obtained from Mr. Judge consent to the publication of this letter in her magazine "Lucifer," where it appeared in April, 1893, immediately after her return from the United States. This letter was, according to the restriction imposed by Mr. Judge, not published as to Col. Olcott, but as to "An Indian Brother," and was given by Mrs. Besant the caption, "An Interesting Letter." It is of such value in itself and of such importance in the events of 1893 and those immediately following, that we re-print it in the present issue of this magazine so that all readers may ponder it.
So soon as "Lucifer" with the "interesting letter" reached India, Col. Olcott took action. In the "Theosophist" for July, 1893, appear two articles in comment and criticism of the views expressed by Mr. Judge in the "interesting letter." The second of these, signed N.D.K. (the initials of N. D. Khandalavala, a prominent Indian member), is a temperate and strong argument, from a similar point of view to that of Mr. Sturdy in "Gurus and Chelas," against the danger of mere substitution by the unwise of "Masters" for a personal "Savior." "Reliance on Masters as ideals and as facts" seems to "N.D.K." mere folly in the sense used by Mr. Judge. "N.D.K." says:
"Does not the Christian missionary come canting after us with exactly the same words? Substitute the words 'Jesus and Saviour' for 'Masters' in the sentences of Mr. Judge, and they will read like a propaganda of the Evangelist preachers."
"N.D.K." objects very strongly to Mr. Judge's saying that he "knows out of his own experience" of the existence of Masters and suggests that Mr. Judge "systematically and exhaustively bring forward his experiences for the benefit of us all. ... There is no virtue whatsoever in boldly making an assertion, and withholding the evidence upon which the assertion has been based." Most objectionable of all to "N.D.K." is Mr. Judge's statement that his means of identifying a "message" is "within himself," and not by means of external evidences such as signatures, seal, etc. This, "N.D.K." thinks, is very bad indeed. He quotes from H.P.B. on the great need for "unbiassed and clear judgment" in all matters, but apparently has never read H.P.B.'s article in "Lucifer" for October, 1888, on "Lodges of Magic" in which she discusses this very question of the evidences of "messages" from the same standpoint as Mr. Judge's statements, in reply to those (actually Olcott, Sinnett, and others) who were whispering about that some of her Messages were fraudulent, others genuine, etc. "N.D.K.'s" implications would all apply equally to H.P.B. as to Mr. Judge, and, as the student may discern for himself by comparison of statements, all that Mr. Judge wrote in his "interesting letter" had before him been said by H.P.B., to the same annoyance of the "doubting Thomases" who, themselves unable to "communicate," wanted "proofs" satisfactory to themselves. "N.D.K.'s" article has for title and sub-title, "THEOSOPHY IN THE WEST. THE TENDENCY TOWARDS DOGMATISM." As Mr. Judge's "interesting letter" is reprinted in this issue of THEOSOPHY the reader can form his own judgment as to where the "tendency to dogmatism" lies -- in Mr. Judge, or in "N.D.K." and those for whom he spoke.
The other article in the "Theosophist" had for title, "Theosophic Freethought" and is signed by Walter R. Old and Sidney V. Edge, Col. Olcott's two chief lieutenants at the time. Mr. Old, like Mr. Sturdy, had been a member of the "E.S.T. Council" during H.P.B.'s lifetime and had been present at the Avenue Road meeting of May 27, 1891. It cannot be doubted that "Theosophic Freethought" was written and published with the full endorsement of Col. Olcott. The writers profess to regard Mr. Judge's statements as "virtually ... a dogma" and the publication of his letter as in itself a "leading to dogmatism." They go on to say:"Hence we cannot conclude otherwise than that a personal declaration of belief coming from Mr. Judge and unsupported by any evidence showing how, in the face of general experience, he has attained that belief, is extremely inimical to the spirit of our Society....The reader, with the collateral circumstances in mind and the text of Mr. Judge's "interesting letter' before him, can take these criticisms by Messrs. Old and Edge one by one and compare them in spirit and fairness, as well as in logic, with the manner and matter of Mr. Judge's statements. The irony of the situation is enhanced by the simple fact that none of the "Messages" which formed the basis of the shafts leveled at Mr. Judge had been received by him, or had been made public by him, and that he had scrupulously avoided any statements direct or indirect that might direct or attract attention to himself as Master's agent. On the other hand the statements made by Mrs. Besant and Mr. Sinnett were in such form and made in such circumstances as directly to challenge acceptance or rejection on their mere ipse dixit. And the same was exactly true of Col. Olcott. No "evidence" was ever offered by either of these three, no arguments, no citations of teachings, to support their claims. Each repeatedly claimed "communications from the Masters of H.P.B.," with himself as the sole "authority" for the claims; each, at one time and another, rejected the "authenticity" of Messages coming through H.P.B. and -- mark well -- their own "messages" were in every case in contradiction to earlier communications and teachings through H.P.B., the "rejected" messages of H.P.B. always those which, if genuine, upset their own teachings and their own claims. In contrast with this, the student can easily ascertain for himself by examination that the "fraudulent" messages attributed to both H.P.B. and Mr. Judge were in every case in strict accord with the whole philosophy of Occultism as recorded by them during twenty years, and with all the "accepted" Messages from the Masters.
"Another dangerous dogma advanced by Mr. Judge is the statement that 'a very truism, when uttered by a Mahatma, has a deeper meaning for which the student must seek, but which he will lose if he stops to criticize and weigh the words in mere ordinary scales.' ... if we push it to its ultimate issue, as Mr. Judge seems anxious to do, its thoroughly noxious and unwholesome nature becomes simply overpowering."...
"Of the same nature as the above, and of equally dangerous tendency, is the statement, in regard to messages received from a Master that 'The signature is not important. The means of identification are not located in signatures at all. If you have not the means yourself for proving and identifying such a message, then signature, seal, papers, water-mark, what-not, are all useless. As to "Master's Seal," about which you put me the question, I do not know. Whether he has a seal or uses one is something on which I am ignorant.'...
"To sum up: it appears from Mr. Judge's letter that:--
"1. A Theosophist of high standing and authority in the Society has a right to widely affirm the existence of Masters as a matter of personal experience, without adducing proofs of his experience.
"2. That others may, unchallenged, assert the same with equal force, upon the authority of his unproved personal statement.
"3. That so long as he is prepared to take the Karma of such assertions, it is not a matter of concern to any other member of the same body.
"4. That the progress of the T.S. lies in fidelity to the 'assertions' of a few of its members.
"5. That a truism when uttered by a Mahatma becomes something more than a truism.
"6. That letters received from a Mahatma will not permit of the usual tests of identification.
"7. That the only test is one's own intuition."
Setting aside, for the benefit of the "non-initiated" the possibility that there may be means and modes of communication and verification of such communication on "higher planes of being" which are absolute to Masters and "accepted Chelas," and wholly unknown and unsuspected by any others -- setting all this aside, what possible "proofs" are there of the genuineness of an alleged "communication" from other planes of being?
The records of all religions are full of "communications" from God, demons, angels, discarnate "spirits," what not. Modern spiritualism and psychical research swarm with the statements of such "communications." The "proofs," when investigated, always come down to two things: (a) the "testimony" of the recipient that he has received the communication and that he "knows" the source of the message; (b) the "phenomenal" accompaniments -- fire, flame, a voice, a vision, objects moved without physical contact, words and letters "precipitated," facts related and events described unknown to the recipient, or supposedly known to him alone, prophecies, and so on. These "proofs" have in all ages been sufficient to satisfy multitudes of recipients and masses of believers, and to excite to fury the incredulity of others. But when the thoughtful man compares the respective "revelations" he always finds them in gross contradiction, one with another; more, he finds the accepted explanation of the recipients and their followers inconsistent within itself, and impossible of reconciliation with the everyday demonstrated facts of life, and their "accepted explanation." One would think, to listen to any of the votaries of these "communications," that there remain no mysteries in life to explain, whereas, any reflective mind must admit that life holds little else than mysteries, and that the true explanation and understanding of God and Nature and Man are as far from human solution as ever. The most that can be truly said by the layman is that all that these "proofs," when weighed, demonstrate is that "there are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy."
It remains true, as H.P.B. wrote at the time of the N.Y. "Sun" libel, that "Occult phenomena can never be proved in a Court of Law during this century." "Messages," whether from Masters or from other sources, must continue to be for the "uninitiated" a matter of intelligent or unintelligent, of consistent or inconsistent, belief or disbelief. "Phenomena" at best are but accompaniments, not certificates, and if the Source of any message is metaphysical and transcendental, its verification must be looked for on the plane of its origin, not that of its receipt. Hence the repeated statements of H.P.B. and Mr. Judge, as well as those of the Masters in the generally accepted communications from Them, that "Messages" as well as Messengers must be judged on their philosophical and moral worth, not on the basis of "authority" or phenomenal appearances. But to return to "Theosophic Freethought."
A foot-note to the article by Messrs. Old and Edge says, in connection with Mr. Judge's remarks on "Master's seal:""In regard to this statement we can only remark that Mr. Judge's memory must be seriously defective. We must therefore remind him that a very important step in connection with the re-organization of the Esoteric Section of the T.S. was taken, after the death of H.P.B., on the authority of a certain message, purporting to come from one of the Mahatmas, and which bore, as Mr. Judge will now remember, a seal-impression, said by him to be that of 'the Master.' No doubt Mr. Judge will take the opportunity of either rectifying his statement or if showing how his acting upon the authority of 'the Master's' seal at one time, and professing ignorance of it at another, may be regarded as consistent."Advance proofs of the "Theosophist" containing the article on "Theosophic Freethought" were sent to many persons in England and the United States, and the article itself was at once issued from Adyar with a Madras imprint and sent broadcast throughout the Society in pamphlet form. No public attention was paid to it by either Mr. Judge or Mrs. Besant, as, under the proclaimed neutrality of the T.S., any member thereof had full freedom and liberty to hold any opinions that might seem acceptable to him, and to express them. We have before called attention to the fact that no member of the T.S. was bound to any obligation other than assent to the First Object, and to the other fact that the Esoteric Section or School admitted only (a) those who accepted in full the Three Objects of the T.S.; (b) who professed full belief in and acceptance of Theosophy and pledged themselves to "endeavor to make Theosophy a living power" in their life; who pledged themselves to "support before the world the Theosophical Movement and its Founders;" (c) who pledged themselves to strict voluntary obedience to the Rules of the School. These rules were clear and unequivocal. Every member of the E.S., before being permitted to enter it, was furnished with a copy of the preliminary memoranda, the pledge, and the Book of Rules, so that he might inform himself fully of the conditions of his entrance and continuance in the School, as well as of the sine qua non conditions precedent to any progress in esotericism. Thus whoever entered the School did so voluntarily with full knowledge in advance of what was required of him, with full warning that his difficulties would lie within himself, and pledged his "most solemn and sacred word of honour" to all the conditions.
Both Old and Edge were members of the Esoteric School, the former having entered during the life of H.P.B., the latter after her passing. As the statements, criticisms and charges in the Old and Edge article, and particularly the foot-note just quoted, were in direct violation both of the spirit and the letter of some of the clauses of the "Pledge" and certain of the "Rules" of the School, prompt and decisive action was taken by Mr. Judge and Mrs. Besant as Co-Heads of the E.S. Both Old and Edge were in that geographical section which was under the immediate care of Mrs. Besant. She therefore drew up a "strictly private and confidential" circular letter dated "August, 1893," which was signed by Mr. Judge with her and sent from London to all E.S. members throughout the world. At the same time both Old and Edge were suspended from membership in the E.S.
This circular, which was headed, "To All Members of E.S.T.," reads, in part, as follows:"In the July Theosophist (1893) an article appeared signed by W. R. Old and S. V. Edge, entitled 'Theosophic Freethought,' as a criticism on Brother Judge's letter in Lucifer. No objection except that of good taste could be made to the article considered as a criticism, since Brother Judge concedes to every one a right to their opinions and to the expression of such in every case except where questions of a pledge or of honor are concerned. So with the article we are not concerned, but we are with the foot-note to it....The circular also contained a signed statement by Mrs. Besant and other Councillors present at the meeting on May 27, 1891, refuting in positive terms the assertions and implications in the "foot-note" to Messrs. Old and Edge's "Theosophic Freethought." To this we shall refer again in its proper connection.
"The article was given to public printers and sent in advance to many persons in Europe, but it was not sent in time to London where Brother Judge was in July, to permit our cabling to India, and no previous notice was given Brother Judge, nor was he asked his views.
"This foot-note is, first, a violation of the pledge of secrecy made by Brother Old, ... and second, is a violation of honor and confidence as a member of the Council of the E.S.T. By reason of the above we are compelled to take action.
"Therefore ... we have for the present suspended them (Old and Edge) from their membership in the E.S.T....
"But the statement in above foot-note is itself untrue. The reorganization of the School in 1891 was not based on a message from the Master: it was based on several letters and certificates from H.P.B. (see Council Minutes) explicitly making William Q. Judge her representative in America, and on one from her assigning to Annie Besant the position she was to hold after her (H.P.B.'s) death...."
To complete the picture of the marshaling of the opposing forces the reader should now turn to the "Theosophist" for May, June, July, and August, 1893, and read carefully the successive instalments of Col. Olcott's "Old Diary Leaves" first printed during those months. After the preliminary details of his first thirteen chapters, dealing with his acquaintance with H.P.B. and the crowding events culminating in the publication of "Isis Unveiled" in 1877, the Colonel pauses in his march to discuss the writing of that work, the "collaboration" of the Masters in its production, the nature of H.P.B., and the possible explanations of the mysteries of which he had caught many glimpses during the preceding three years. In Chapter XIV he lays down the seven hypotheses of which we have earlier spoken, and proceeds to argue and discuss them through the succeeding chapters in the fashion we have already indicated. In the August number he propounds his central idea, the dominant note to which he has all along been leading up. He says that H.P.B.:--
"Appears to have been the subject of a distinct mental evolution."
What he meant by this is very clearly shown and argued in the body of the chapter and subsequently. He meant that H.P.B. at best was a student of the Wisdom-Religion, the same as any and all others; that when she began her mission she was both ignorant and misinformed on many subjects and teachings which afterwards she learned as she "progressed." Her sole and questionable advantage was in the possession of "psychic" and "clairvoyant" faculties which enabled the Masters to use her for Their purposes in the same way and under the same disadvantages as a "control" or "guide" uses a spiritualist "medium," or that a mesmerist or hypnotizer uses a "sensitive" or "subject."
He proceeds to illustrate this fundamental idea of his by saying:"Take, for instance, her teachings on Re-incarnation, the strong foundation-stone of the ancient occult philosophy, which was affirmed in the 'Secret Doctrine' and her other later writings. When we worked on 'Isis,' it was neither taught us by the Mahatmas, nor supported by her in her literary controversies or private discussions, of those earlier days. She held to, and defended, the theory that human souls, after death, passed on by a course of purificatory evolution to other and more spiritualized planets....In the course of his chapter he suggests that he has "notes" of a conversation between one of the Mahatmas and himself in which the Adept affirmed the same theory of "purificatory evolution" on "higher spheres," and naively inquires:
"She told Mr. Walter R. Old -- who is my informant -- that she was not taught the doctrine of Re-incarnation until 1879 -- when we were in India....
"Ultimately, the doctrine of Re-incarnation was fully accepted and expounded, both in its exoteric sense and esoterically.""Is it possible that Re-incarnation was not taught this Adept by his Master, and that he, as well as H.P.B., had to learn it subsequently? There are said to be sixty-three stages of Adeptship and it is not impossible."Olcott's views of H.P.B. as a "student" had been very succinctly voiced by Mr. Old at the "White Lotus Day" commemoration at Adyar on May 8, 1893, and printed in the "Theosophist" for June. Old was introduced by Col. Olcott and made the address of the day. He said:"It is provided in the Constitution of the Society, that perfect freedom of opinion shall be allowed to all its members; but nothing would be more dangerous to the catholicity of our doctrines than to suppose this to convey with it the right, to any individual member, of forcing his views upon others; or of reading into the writings of H.P.B., or any other person connected with the movement, anything of authority; or yet of enunciating therefrom a dogma or credo which shall be considered pre-eminently Theosophical or binding upon Theosophists generally. And the dangers we have to face are undoubtedly of this nature....Olcott, Sinnett, Bertram Keightley, Old, Sturdy, Edge, the leading Hindus, and many others of lesser prominence, were now all of one mind in regard to the "dangers" besetting the Society and the Movement; their ideas regarding H.P.B. spread broadcast in America, England, Europe and India. The machinery of the Society was in their hands, its most widely circulated publication under their control. What else was lacking in the equipment necessary to relegate H.P.B. and her defender, Judge, to the background, to subordinate the teachings of Theosophy given out by these two Colleagues to the "more recent teachings" and the "progressive development" of other "students" and "occultists" more in harmony with the "official authority" of the "President-Founder"? What was requisite to do away with the policy and example of H.P.B. and Judge and replace them by a management and guidance from "Adyar," without risk of failure for the conspirators behind the scenes, and without breaking up the Society? The storm of 1884-5 had showed that however violent the commotion, attacks from without could not destroy the integrity of the Movement nor the prestige with the members of H.P.B. The Coues-Collins-Lane conspiracy had come far nearer achieving its object in 1889-90, because it had been hatched within the Society, and had the tacit sympathy and support of Col. Olcott until he saw that its success would ruin the Society. But it, too, had failed, because H.P.B. and Judge were both alive and had, in the newly-formed Esoteric Section, a loyal battalion of members of the Society pledged to Theosophy first.
"What we now need to recognize is the merit of that self-devotion to the cause of Truth which characterized the life-work of H.P.B. No impartial student of her writings can fail to recognize the indications of a steady unfoldment of mind, an ever-widening spiritual perception, with the concomitant changes of view-point and modifications of doctrine."
This time the conspiracy had all the elements of victory in hand save one only. Could Mrs. Besant be brought to join hands with Olcott, Sinnett, and the rest, the combination would be invincible. She had already taken her stand in the most positive manner, not only as regards H.P.B. and Judge, but for all that they had from the beginning proclaimed and fought for, in principle and in practice. Could she be brought to change sides on the very eve of battle?
Determined to banish the spectre of the "dead" H.P.B. whose memory was still a more potent influence than their living claims to preferment, it was all too clear that this could not be done except by ruining the reputation of Mr. Judge. Could Mrs. Besant be made the fulcrum of their energies, then Judge could be routed, H.P.B. consigned to the region of eulogiums, and a victorious future assured to the Society and its "leaders." There would be no greater risk than that a few recalcitrants might have to be read out of the Society or forced to resign or secede. The game was well worth the candle -- from the standpoint of the hunters.
But Mrs. Besant was no ignorant and superstitious "christian," like Madame Coulomb, and therefore not to be approached with threats and bribes; she was no finely organized "psychic" or "medium," like Mrs. Cables and Mabel Collins, therefore to be swept off her feet by some astral intoxication or personal experience in psychology; nor was she an Elliott Coues, brilliant but conscienceless, educated but steeped in ethical savagery, to whom Theosophy was a mere means to personal ends. If she were to be seduced and suborned -- made to serve as dupe and tool of "the mighty magic of Prakriti," -- then indeed would need be called in play the fine art of Oriental subtility and sophistication in the mysteries of the governing forces in human life; subtility and sophistication laughed at by the wisest of Western minds, whose very incredulity and scepticism in regard to their own susceptibility to the sway of "occult powers" makes them, at occasion, victim to their own virtues. Hume, Sinnett, Massey, Olcott and many another able, sincere, resolute and honorable-minded man had been, in turn and in successive links, so influenced, all unknown to themselves, that their course had become the exact opposite to that taught and pursued by Masters and by H.P.B.; the opposite of the very course originally taken by themselves. And the substitution of charts, the change in direction, had been so subtly accomplished that the more the victims went astray, the more profoundly convinced they were of the rectitude and precision of their conduct!
The welter of facts and opinions covering the years 1893-5 is not easy to assemble, assort, relate and marshal into something like order and proportion. Yet this is the task that confronts, not merely the historian, but is that of every theosophical student who would be true to his duty to the Movement and himself. A firm conclusion must be reached or the student will always be harassed by doubts, bewilderments, uncertainties. Such a firm conclusion will be arrived at either as the result of knowledge acquired at first hand and weighed with impartiality in the light of the principles of Theosophy, or it will rest upon no better basis than hearsay and reliance upon authority -- mere blind faith, of which the world has ever held an overplus and from which all mankind suffers continually.
Under the criteria afforded by Theosophy -- and what other criterion is there? -- the student has to take into consideration not only the physical facts and factors, but in ever-increasing degrees of importance he has to ascertain and evaluate factors and phenomena meta-physical -- the Psychic, the Manasic, the Spiritual components of actions and events. These various constituents are not disjunctive and sequential, but integral and correlative, their governing importance as prime factors of correct judgment in inverse order to that habitually employed by mankind. Moreover, since it is certain that whatever, either of Truth or error or falsehood there may be in the world, or whatever their ultimate source, they have all reached mankind through the agency of human beings, it follows that the student must, of necessity, weigh actors as well as actions; persons and personages as well as their statements; motives and character as well as opinions and belief. And there is no alternative route, theosophically or practically, either to accurate knowledge or correct judgment. As so well put in the Preface to H. P. Blavatsky's "Key to Theosophy:"
"To the mentally lazy or obtuse, Theosophy must remain a riddle; for in the world mental as in the world spiritual each man must progress by his own efforts. The writer cannot do the reader's thinking for him, nor would the latter be any better off if such vicarious thought were possible."
As with all conspiracies, much of what occurred in 1893 and subsequently is enveloped in the obscurity of secrecy and silence. But there is no maxim, exoteric or esoteric, more profoundly true than the aphorism that "murder will out." Perception, inference and testimony are all essential components of true knowledge, and when the ascertainable facts, the relevant testimony extant, are fitted together, all the rest becomes a matter of unavoidable inference to the logical mind: the Great Betrayal is exposed in all its hideous blackness, and the subsequent degradation and disintegration of the Theosophical Movement into sects and sectaries seen to be the Karmic consequence.
(To be continued)
THE THEOSOPHICAL MOVEMENT
(Part 29 of a 34-part series)
"THE THEOSOPHICAL MOVEMENT"
series complete list of articles.
Back to the full listing containing all of the
"Additional Categories of Articles".
ONE (1) FOOTNOTE LISTED BELOW:
(1) Corrections, objections, criticisms, questions and comments are invited from all readers on any facts or conclusions stated in this series. --EDITORS.
Back to text.