THEOSOPHY, Vol. 54, No. 6, April, 1966
(Pages 175-181; Size: 29K)
HUMAN TYPE AND FORM(1)The MONAD has, during the cycle of its incarnations, to reflect in itself every root-form of each kingdom.THERE can be no objective form on Earth (nor in the Universe either), without its astral prototype being first formed in Space. From Phidias down to the humblest workman in the ceramic art -- a sculptor has to create first of all a model in his mind, then sketch it in one and two dimensional lines, and then only can he reproduce it in a three dimensional or objective figure. And if human mind is a living demonstration of such successive stages in the process of evolution -- how can it be otherwise when NATURE'S MIND and creative powers are concerned?--The Secret Doctrine
As regards the evolution of mankind, the Secret Doctrine teaches (a) the simultaneous evolution of seven human groups on seven different portions of our globe; (b) the birth of the astral, before the physical body; the former being a model for the latter; and (c) that man, in this Round, preceded every mammalian -- the anthropoids included -- in the animal kingdom. The Natures of the seven hierarchies or classes of Pitris or Dhyan Chohans compose our nature and bodies. Paracelsus calls them the Flagae; the Christians, the "Guardian Angels"; the Occultists, the "Ancestors, the Pitris"; they are the sixfold Dhyan Chohans, having the six spiritual Elements in the composition of their bodies -- in fact, men, minus the physical body.
The evolution of man, the microcosm, is analogous to that of the Universe, the macrocosm. His evolution stands between that of the latter and that of the animal, for which man, in his turn, is a macrocosm. Man was the storehouse, so to speak, of all the seeds of life for this Round, vegetable and animal alike. Man -- or rather his Monad -- has existed on this earth from the very beginning of this Round. But, up to our own Fifth Race, the external shapes which covered those divine astral doubles changed and consolidated with every sub-race; the form and physical structure of the fauna changing at the same time, as they had to be adapted to the ever-changing conditions of life on this globe during the geological periods of its formative cycle. And thus shall they go on changing with every Root-Race and every chief sub-race down to the last one of the Seventh in this Round.
It may be complained by some that too little is said of the physical, human side of the extinct races, in this history of their growth and evolution. Much more might be said assuredly, if simple prudence did not make us hesitate at the threshold of every new revelation. That which finds its possibility and landmarks in the discoveries of modern science, is given: all that of which exact knowledge knows nothing and upon which it is unable to speculate -- and therefore denies as facts in nature -- is withheld. But even such statements as these -- e.g., that of all the mammalians, man was the earliest; that it is man who is the indirect ancestor of the Apes; and that he was a kind of Cyclops in days of old -- will also be contested, yet, scientists will never be able to prove -- except to their own satisfaction -- that it was not so. Nor can they admit that the first two races of men were too ethereal and phantom-like in their constitution, organism, and shape, even to be called physical men. For, if they do, it will be found that this is one of the reasons why their relics can never be expected to be exhumed among other fossils. Nevertheless all this is maintained.
The human form -- so called because it is the vehicle (under whatever shape) of the divine man -- is, as so intuitionally remarked by the author of "Esoteric Studies," the new type, at the beginning of every Round, "as man can never be, so he has never been, manifested in the shape belonging to the animal kingdom in esse." The author proceeds, "he never formed part of that kingdom. Derived, only derived, from the most finished class of the latter, a new human form must always have been the new type of the cycle. The human shape, in one ring (?), as I imagine, becomes cast-off clothes in the next; it is then appropriated by the highest order in the servant-kingdom below." Every living creature and thing on earth, including man, evolved from one common primal form. Physical man must have passed through the same stages of the evolutionary process in the various modes of procreation as other animals have: he must have divided himself; the hermaphrodite, have given birth parthogenetically (on the immaculate principle) to his young ones; the next stage would be the oviparous --at first "without any fructifying element," then "with the help of the fertility spore"; and only after the final and definite evolution of both sexes, would he become a distinct "male and female," when reproduction through sexual union would grow into universal law. So far, all this is scientifically proven.
How was the separation of sexes effected? it is asked. Are we to believe in the old Jewish fable of the rib of Adam yielding Eve? Even such belief is more logical and reasonable than the descent of man from the Quadrumana without any reservation; as the former hides an esoteric truth under a fabulous version, while the latter conceals no deeper fact than a desire to force upon mankind a materialistic fiction. The rib is bone, and when we read in Genesis that Eve was made out of the rib, it means only that the Race with bones was produced out of a previous Race and Races, which were "boneless." This is an esoteric tenet spread far and wide, as it is almost universal under its various forms. A Tahitian tradition states that man was created out of Aræa, "red Earth." Taaroa, the creative power, the chief god, "put man to sleep for long years, for several lives," which means racial periods, and is a reference to his mental sleep, as shown elsewhere. During that time the deity pulled an Ivi (bone) out of man and she became a woman. Nevertheless, whatever the allegory may mean, even its exoteric meaning necessitates a divine Builder of man -- "a Progenitor."
We reject every groundless and baseless tradition, which, having outgrown strict allegory and symbolism, has found acceptance in exoteric creeds. But that which is preserved in unanimous traditions, only the wilfully blind could reject. Hence we believe in races of beings other than our own in far remote geological periods; in races of ethereal, following incorporeal, "Arupa," men, with form but no solid substance, giants who preceded us pygmies; in dynasties of divine beings, those Kings and Instructors of the Third Race in arts and sciences, compared with which our little modern science stands less chance than elementary arithmetic with geometry.
The whole personnel of the Brahmanas and Puranas -- the Rishis, Prajapatis, Manus, their wives and progeny -- belong to that pre-human period. All these are the Seed of Humanity, so to speak. It is around these "Sons of God," the "Mind born" astral children of Brahma, that our physical frames have grown and developed to what they are now. For, the Puranic histories of all those men are those of our Monads, in their various and numberless incarnations on this and other spheres, events perceived by the "Siva eye" of the ancient Seers, (the "third eye" of our Stanzas) and described allegorically. Later on, they were disfigured for Sectarian purposes; mutilated, but still left with a considerable ground-work of truth in them. Nor is the philosophy less profound in such allegories for being so thickly veiled by the overgrowth of fancy.
Evolution in general, events, mankind, and everything else in Nature proceed in cycles. We have spoken of seven Races, five of which have nearly completed their earthly career, and have claimed that every Root-Race, with its sub-races and innumerable family divisions and tribes, was entirely distinct from its preceding and succeeding races. The human Races are born one from the other, grow, develop, become old, and die. Their sub-races and nations follow the same rule. What will be most contested by scientific authorities is the a-sexual Race, the Second, the fathers of the "Sweat-born" so-called, and perhaps still more the Third Race, the "Egg-born" androgynes. These two modes of procreation are the most difficult to comprehend, especially for the Western mind.
Consider the first stages of the development of a germ-cell. Its nucleus grows, changes, and forms a double cone or spindle, within the cell. This spindle approaches the surface of the cell, and one half of it is extruded in the form of what are called the "polar cells." These polar cells now die, and the embryo develops from the growth and segmentation of the remaining part of the nucleus which is nourished by the substance of the cell. Then why could not beings have lived thus, and been created in this way -- at the very beginning of human and mammalian evolution? This may, perhaps, serve as an analogy to give some idea of the process by which the Second Race was formed from the First.
When the season of reproduction arrives, the sub-astral "extrudes" a miniature of itself from the egg of surrounding aura. This germ grows and feeds on the aura till it becomes fully developed, when it gradually separates from its parent, carrying with it its own sphere of aura; just as we see living cells reproducing their like by growth and subsequent division into two. The analogy with the "polar cells" would seem to hold good, since their death would now correspond to the change introduced by the separation of the sexes, when gestation in utero, i.e. within the cell, became the rule. Primeval human hermaphrodites are a fact in Nature well known to the ancients, and form one of Darwin's greatest perplexities. Yet there is certainly no impossibility, but, on the contrary, a great probability that hermaphroditism existed in the evolution of the early races; while on the grounds of analogy, and on that of the existence of one universal law in physical evolution, acting indifferently in the construction of plant, animal, and man, it must be so.
The Third-Race-mankind is the most mysterious of all the hitherto developed five Races. The mystery of the "How" of the generation of the distinct sexes must, of course, be very obscure here, as it is the business of an embryologist and a specialist, the present work giving only faint outlines of the process. But it is evident that the units of the Third Race humanity began to separate in their pre-natal shells, or eggs, and to issue out of them as distinct male and female babes, after the appearance of its early progenitors. And, as time rolled on its geological periods, the newly born sub-races began to lose their natal capacities. Toward the end of the fourth sub-race, the babe lost its faculty of walking as soon as liberated from its shell, and by the end of the fifth, mankind was born under the same conditions and by the same identical process as our historical generations. This required, of course, millions of years.
But with the Fourth Race we reach the purely human period. Those who were hitherto semi-divine Beings, self-imprisoned in bodies which were human only in appearance, became physiologically changed and took unto themselves wives who were entirely human and fair to look at, but in whom lower, more material, though sidereal, beings had incarnated. These beings in female forms (Lilith is the prototype of these in the Jewish traditions) are called in the esoteric accounts "Khado" (Dakini, in Sanskrit). Allegorical legends call the chief of these Liliths, Sangye Khado (Buddha Dakini, in Sanskrit); all are credited with the art of "walking in the air," and the greatest kindness to mortals; but no mind --only animal instinct.
As the embryo of man has no more of the ape in it than of any other mammal, but contains in itself the totality of all the kingdoms of nature, and since it seems to be "a persistent type" of life, far more so than even the Foraminifera, it seems as illogical to make him evolve from the ape as it would be to trace his origin to the frog or the dog. Both Occult and Eastern philosophies believe in evolution, which Manu and Kapila give with far more clearness than any scientist does at present. But no Occultist can accept the unreasonable proposition that all the now existing forms, "from the structureless Amoeba to man," are the direct lineal descendants of organisms which lived millions and millions of years before the birth of man, in the pre-Silurian epochs, in the sea or land-mud. The Occultists believe in an inherent law of progressive development ... checked and modified, however, by the Law of Retardation, which imposes a restriction on the advance of all species when a Higher Type makes its appearance.
It is not denied that in the preceding Round man was a gigantic ape-like creature; and when we say "man" we ought perhaps to say, the rough mould that was developing for the use of man in this Round only -- the middle, or the transition point of which we have hardly reached. Nor was man what he is now during the first two and a half Root-races. That point he reached 18,000,000 years ago, during the secondary period, as we claim. Till then he was, according to tradition and Occult teaching, "a god on earth who had fallen into matter," or generation. This may or may not be accepted, since the Secret Doctrine does not impose itself as an infallible dogma; and since, whether its prehistoric records are accepted or rejected, it has nothing to do with the question of the actual man and his inner nature, the "Fall" having left no original sin on Humanity.
Furthermore, we are taught that the transformations through which man passed on the descending arc -- which is centrifugal for spirit and centripetal for matter -- and those he prepares to go through, henceforward, on his ascending path, which will reverse the direction of the two forces -- viz., matter will become centrifugal and spirit centripetal -- that all such transformations are next in store for the anthropoid ape also, all those, at any rate, who have reached the remove next to man in this Round -- and these will all be men in the Fifth Round, as present men inhabited ape-like forms in the Third, the preceding Round.
Species and genera of the flora, fauna, and the highest animal, its crown -- man, change and vary according to the environments and climatic variations, not only with every Round, but every Root-Race likewise, as well as after every geological cataclysm that puts an end to, or produces a turning point in the latter. In the Sixth Root-Race the fossils of the Orang, the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee will be those of extinct quadrumanous mammals; and new forms -- though fewer and ever wider apart as ages pass on and the close of the Manvantara approaches -- will develop from the "cast off" types of the human races as they revert once again to the astral, out of the mire of physical, life. There were none before man, and they will be extinct before the Seventh Race develops. Karma will lead on the monads of the unprogressed men of our race and lodge them in the newly evolved human frames of the thus physiologically regenerated baboon. This will take place, of course, millions of years hence. But the picture of this cyclic precession of all that lives and breathes now on earth, of each species in its turn, is a true one, and needs no "special creation" or miraculous formation of man, beast, and plant ex nihilo. This is how Occult Science explains the absence of any link between ape and man, and shows the former evolving from the latter.
Thus, it is most important to remember that the Egos of the apes are entities compelled by their Karma to incarnate in the animal forms, which resulted from the bestiality of the latest Third and the earliest Fourth Race men. They are entities who had already reached the "human stage" before this Round ... truly "speechless men," and will become speaking animals (or men of a lower order) in the Fifth Round, while the adepts of a certain school hope that some of the Egos of the apes of a higher intelligence will reappear at the close of the Sixth Root-Race.
COMPILER'S NOTE: The following is a separate item which followed the above article but was on the same page. I felt it was useful to include it here:
WISDOM ABOVE INTELLECT
The wisdom contained in the Bible and in other records of even older origin should give the champions of "emergent evolution" some pause for reflection. The human race may have existed on earth for millions of years while the great treasures of its culture may not be older than several millenniums. Still the fact remains that, almost as soon as man's spirit could fully express itself through the medium of his physical organism, its messages reflected memories of a world of supernal greatness and superintellectual wisdom. Were it true that the human spirit is merely a higher form of animal consciousness, its first recorded expressions could not have dealt with the supernatural.--FRANZ WINKLER: The Bridge Between Two Worlds
[Note: Here is the copy of the item that was referred to by the Editors in the one footnote to the above article, which is found below. This "On the Lookout" section always reviews and comments on various subjects. Only the specific one referred to is copied and presented here.--Compiler.]
THEOSOPHY, Vol. 54, No. 5, March, 1966
ON THE LOOKOUT
An Anthropologist's Confusions About H.P.B.
It is curious how professional scholars, often men of considerable repute in their fields, sometimes throw scholarship and even professional integrity to the winds when they have occasion to comment on (or exploit) Theosophical teachings -- or rather, perverted echoes of Theosophical teachings -- in works which seek a popular market. A case in point is Frank C. Hibben's Digging Up America (first published in 1960 and now available in paperback), a book concerned with the author's explorations and excavations as curator and a professor of the department of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico. While there are matters of interest in this book -- such as Dr. Hibben's contention that there were human races of quite modern appearance contemporaneous with the low-browed Neanderthals, and that Ales Hrdlicka, once the dean of American anthropologists, was quite wrong in his assumption that if human skulls found in North and South America did not have bestial traits, they must be of recent origin and of no interest to archaeologists -- the reader who is also a student of Theosophy will hardly wish to rely on Dr. Hibben as any sort of "authority."
Ridicule Instead of Scholarship
Apparently neglecting entirely The Secret Doctrine (he could not have referred to it with any care without learning how to spell Madame Blavatsky's name correctly), Dr. Hibben launches upon a ridiculing description of statements attributed to H.P.B. which is distinguished by the fact that hardly more than one or two of the ideas discussed is either accurate, or even hers, in the form given. For example, he writes:The chief champion of Lemuria was Heliona P. Blevatsky, who wrote a book on the subject. [She did not; the word "Lemuria" was invented by Sclater, to whom she refers.] Madame Blevatsky peopled the lost Lemuria with what she called "root races." [She did not; "Root Race" was the term she used to characterize the evolutionary development of mankind in vast epochs, one by one, on all the great land-masses which appear in succession, of which there have been five, according to Theosophical teachings. Dr. Hibben's statement makes a ridiculous hash of this idea.] These root races were fantastic by any biological standards. [They were not, although the earliest races were procreated by various means having analogies in nature, and were admittedly much larger than present-day man. True men of the later Third Race, after the separation into the sexes, functioned biologically very much as they do now.] The Lemurians proper were beetle-browed, hermaphroditic giants who laid eggs. [Only the early Lemurians were egg-born; they became sexual, according to The Secret Doctrine, after the lighting up of Manas.] Madame Blevatsky professed a contempt for the "monkey theories" of human evolution. [In a sense, yes, but why not give at least a hint as to her reasons, and the alternative explanation offered for the existence of the anthropoid apes -- which are not, after all, "monkeys"?]Playful CaricatureInstead, in the original continent of Lemuria, the root races had no sex whatever. [The first race was sexless, the second sweat-born, and the early third egg-born; such various modes of reproduction are described in relation to the Lemurian and pre-Lemurian races, among them modes now found in nature. The blanket expression "no sex whatever" is a light-hearted neglect of the serious treatment of these complexities in The Secret Doctrine.] Then when the situation was blemished by the introduction of sex, evolution worked in reverse. [H.P.B. does not treat the separation of mankind into sexes as a "blemish," but speaks of "natural union" as a concomitant of further involvement in matter -- prerequisite, for the great mass of egos, to the beginning of human evolution -- not its "reverse."] The Lemurians, some of whom had four arms and an extra eye in the back of their heads, interbred with lower beasts and human forms regressed to those of the hairy animals. [This is distorted and nonsensical reference to the sin of the mindless man, who was not four-armed, and the fruit of this union, while possibly "hairy," became the female ancestors of the anthropoid apes, sired by Atlanteans at a much later date.]Mongols and American Indians[Now come two sentences which are, through some happy accident, approximately correct.]It should be added that there is nothing intentionally unpleasant about Dr. Hibbens' references to Theosophy or H.P.B. He is just totally careless and totally irresponsible in relation to views which are enormously distant from his own, and he has not bothered to find out to what extent what he says about them is founded on fact.
Madame Blevatsky catalogued the Atlanteans as the "Fourth Root Race" which grew from the Third Root Race. It was from the Fourth Root Race that the Mongoloids and incidentally the American Indians were derived. All the root races were possessed of what she called "Cosmic Consciousness." [The term "Cosmic Consciousness" was the title of a book by Richard M. Bucke, published early in this century (1901), and was not used by H.P.B. in any systematic way, if ever. She certainly made no statement applying this expression to "all the root races."]
Probably Civilized Men and Savages Co-existed
Paradoxically, Dr. Hibben later discusses in a serious manner other ideas which H.P.B. also advanced. One of these, the still-heretical theory that highly civilized races may have existed contiguously with "savages," is one that Theosophists will be glad to see propounded by a reputable anthropologist. (H.P.B., we will remember, suggested in the S.D. that this idea should be considered by scientists, at least as a "hypothesis.") As Dr. Hibben tells it:Over a long period of years, European scientists had concluded that modern man descended from [Neanderthal] low-brow ancestors. ... With new discoveries, especially in the late 1930s and 1940s, it became evident that such a simple view of evolution was not correct. At several places, at Swanscombe in England, at Fontechevade in France, and at Kanjera in East Africa, human fossils of a very different type were discovered. These belonged to people of quite modern appearances, and yet were found among tools of very early Ice Age times. It became apparent that the family tree of man had contained at least two major kinds of ancestors. One of these was of apelike and primitive appearance and the other differed in no essential from people of today. ... A man of extremely modern appearance undoubtedly was the contemporary of the very primitive Neanderthal type.Cremation Customary in Higher Cultures
Another point that H.P.B. makes is developed by Dr. Hibben. She says (S.D. II, 753): "Cremation was universal till a comparatively recent period -- some 80, or 100,000 years ago"; and elsewhere suggests that this is one reason for the absence of "missing links" in the rise and fall of civilizations. Dr. Hibben reports evidences of cremation in very early times:Archaeologists know a lot about death. They spend a good deal of their time poking around tombs and into burial grounds. In the Old World, archaeologists have found cremation invariably associated with higher cultures. For example, cremation was the typical mode of burial of the late Bronze Age people of Europe. In North America, many of the later and highly developed Mound Builders cremated their dead.Incidentally, Dr. Hibben reports regarding the mound builders in the United States: "Curiously enough, some of the earliest mounds were the most elaborate. Some of the very first mound-building groups were the most highly organized, and their religious rituals were the most colorful."
THE IMAGE-MAKING FACULTY
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ONE (1) FOOTNOTE LISTED BELOW:
(1) NOTE.--This collation from The Secret Doctrine will provide helpful points in connection with the item on Hibben's Digging Up America which appeared in March Lookout. [Note: This refers to last month's "On the Lookout" section, a section that is in every issue of THEOSOPHY magazine. I have provided a copy (on this page) of the item referred to, which took up about a third of the space in last month's "Lookout" section. It follows this article. --Compiler.]
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