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Cro Magnon Man and Atlantis


Since Cro Magnon Man was first discovered in 1868, he has presented fundamental puzzles for traditional scientists. Today there is still no solution in sight for the traditional anthropologists. A mere 20 years after his discovery, the Secret Doctrine by Blavatsky, published in 1888, asserted the answer to the mysterious origin of Cro Magnon Man. Since then, facts have been accumulating to further support Blavatsky's view. And more recently, starting in the 1980's and particularly in 1997, very scientific, and unexpected, evidence from DNA analysis has confirmed the accuracy of her claims and helped us to better understand the early prehistory of man. Briefly put, Cro Magnon was Atlantean. The location, dates, of his sites and the character of his culture, support the claims of Theosophy, showing that once again Blavatsky was right.

CRO MAGNON WHO?

Basic facts: Cro Magnon Man appeared abruptly in Europe and North Africa. He lasted from 40,000 years ago to about 12,000 years ago. The first recognized discovery of a Cro Magnon was in 1868, only 20 years before the Secret Doctrine was written.

Blavatsky quotes a man of science as saying:

On the contrary, one of the oldest types, that of the men of the sepulchral cave of Cro-Magnon, is that of a fine race, tall in stature, large in brain, and on the whole superior to many of the existing races of mankind. (SDii678)

The scientist is quite right. Skull types are known after the name of the place where they are first discovered and Cro Magnon was discovered in a cave in France. He is still considered by scientists today to be taller and larger brained than the average human living today.

The first puzzle causes these physical characteristics to be not pleasant for the anthropologist. To fit in more gracefully with their theories, Cro Magnon should have been shorter and smaller brained than the average for humans today. However his actual characteristics are totally in accord with the assertions of Theosophy. They even represent yet another confirmation of Theosophical knowledge.

A second and major puzzle for anthropologists is that Cro Magnon man appears to arrive with his culture from no discernable origin. He does not show any discernable development. His culture was distinctly superior to others around him. This could be seen clearly in the nature of his tools. His art work was also seen to be superior. He painted those cave walls that we hear about and that Blavatsky commented upon. His culture does not appear to come from any source that we can identify. That culture gives all the appearance of arriving from elsewhere already developed.

If you would like a shock, check out this cro magnon drawing of a woman at http://atlantisquest.com/CaveDrawing.html . She is wearing clothes! Those clothes are sewn! She is wearing shoes and a hat! But I thought these were cave men who wore animal skins? And a note on the men - they were clean shaven!

These cave men also had houses! We do not know what exactly they were made of but we do have the post holes.

You can see by now that the cro magnon man is becoming undesirable from the view point of traditional science.

But the third and worst problem of all is that science cannot determine where his bones come from. His skeletal structure does not have traces developing from any surrounding area. And at that, his skeletal structure, as mentioned, is not what science would like to find.

To show you this yet more emphatically, here are a series of quotes showing the "developed somewhere else" nature of Cro Magnon culture:

According to Prof. Francois Bordes, world renown archeologist and former director of the Laboratory of Prehistory at the University of Bordeaux, the Aurignacian [Cro Magnon ] tool tradition without doubt originates outside of Europe, ready-made, although from where is still a mystery (Bordes, 1968). Dr. John E. Pfeiffer, professor of anthropology at Rutgers University observes: "The Aurignacian is quite distinct from the Parigordian" [ a separate older European style ]; they arrive "from some area outside of Western Europe"; with an already "established way of life."

Archeologist Frank Hibben states that the Aurignacian industry is "indubitably non-European in origin";

These "invasions" [ of earlier Cro Magnons in Europe ] are all associated with waves of Cro-Magnon occupation. No formative, or "gestation," stages have ever been found on any continent for any of the Cro-Magnon tool industries.

Professional anthropologists haven't the foggiest idea of the origin of these invasions. (Bordes, 1968) They invariably appeared on the western shores of Europe and Africa, even including some of the Atlantic isles next to those continents. Always the sites are clustered in the west, the number of sites diminishing towards the east [with an exception in the Levant]. Combe Capelle sites [of more ancient European man] are more or less evenly distributed all over Europe and the Near East. This has been a mystery that has plagued anthropologists for over a hundred years. To the west, there is nought but empty ocean: how could the invasions come from there?

The mystery of these invasions has been so embarrassing that today anthropologists don't want to talk about it any more. Some have gotten around the problem by blurring the distinction between true "Atlantic" Cro-Magnons and the "eastern" European types. Calling all modern men "Cro-Magnon," is merely skirting the issue; but this is not a scientific way to deal with the problem. (R. Cedric Leonard, author of Quest for Atlantis at http://atlantisquest.com/Anthropology.html )

DISTRIBUTION OF CRO MAGNON

To solve the mystery of Cro Magnon, there is one simple step to take - look at the distribution of his sites where his bones have been discovered.

Happily there is a good map of those locations online at http://atlantisquest.com/Cro-Magnon.html. It would well pay you in understanding the issue to give a look at that map. Briefly in words it shows the distribution as occurring in France, in the Pyrenees, along the Atlantic coast of Portugal, in southern coast of Spain on either side of the Straits of Gibraltar, in northern Morocco on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts and along rivers. (There are some other sites outside the area of that map that will be discussed later.)

What a visual check of the map makes clear is that Cro Magnon sites hug the Western shores facing the Atlantic Ocean for Europe and northern Africa. And as referenced above, the number of sites thin out as one moves eastward. The Cro Magnon came from the West. They had developed their culture in the West.

One can compare this map to Blavatsky's view and there is a distinct correlation. She claimed that Atlantis was located in the Atlantic Ocean generally across from the same areas that are heavily populated by sites on that map.

For example, Blavatsky asserts a land connection in ancient days between Atlantis and North Africa:

What is now N.W. Africa was once connected with Atlantis by a network of islands, few of which now remain. (SDii790)

So then the conclusion is clear. There was an Atlantis where she said and the Cro Magnons came from Atlantis. Of course science can not place their origin. Their origin is not there any more. It sank.

Of course their culture was higher than those around them. It came from Atlantis.

Now there is one more key location of Cro Magnon man - that is, the Canary Islands. The aboriginals of the Canary Islands, before Spain discovered the island and destroyed most of their populace, were called Guanches. Science recognizes that the Guanches were Cro Magnon.

Today, due to some intermarriage, some traits of the Cro Magnon still atavistically appear - individuals will sometimes be taller and blond. Mostly the culture of the Guanches was wiped out. However, some mummies remain and as shown later some valuable information will be gleaned from those mummies.

The distribution map shows sites in northern Morocco. Those are today the Berbers. The Tuaregs are also a Berber speaking group that is nomadic. Science recognizes that the Berbers are also descended from Cro Magnon man.

The Berbers were in North Africa long before the Arabs arrived. The Berbers are considered the aboriginals of the area and their origins beyond that are not known. Atlantologists regularly claim them - especially since Lewis Spence wrote in 1924 The Problem of Atlantis (later renamed as The History of Atlantis as more confirming evidence came in).

From a useful traditional source:

Despite a history of conquests, the Berbers retained a remarkably homogeneous culture, which, on the evidence of Egyptian tomb paintings, derives from earlier than 2400 B.C. The alphabet of the only partly deciphered ancient Libyan inscriptions is close to the script still used by the Tuareg. The origins of the Berbers are uncertain, although many theories have been advanced relating them to the Canaanites, the Phoenicians, the Celts, the Basques, and the Caucasians. In classical times the Berbers formed such states as Mauritania and Numidia. (http://www.answers.com/topic/berber-people)

OUTPOSTS OF CRO MAGNON

Leonard establishes a point that has some value for vindicating Blavatsky:

So why bother with this obscure and out-of-the-way outpost [ in the Levant: Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine ]? I am convinced that, at least toward the end, the Atlantean civilization was an empire. From the evidence uncovered, there were outposts, not only in the Levant, but also on the Atlantic seaboard of Africa, the Canary Islands, in northern France, in Egypt, the Bahama Islands, in Peru and Bolivia, and possibly even Antarctica. http://atlantisquest.com/Outpost.html

That quote caught me eye because a very careful reading of Blavatsky will show that she also connects Peru just as Leonard does.

While that lead is too much to follow up here, there is also a second very interesting point that cannot be followed. The same outpost of Leonard will, in some distant newsletter, be shown to harbor the Natufian Cro Magnon man. And that man will be shown to have an interesting aside to tell since it started recording a calendar just about exactly when the calamity of Atlantis occurred - some 12,000 ago. But that is for a latter time.

BLAVATSKY ON CRO MAGNON

Blavatsky's next quote sums up much of her view in connecting these anthropological elements together. But just to summarize a few facts: The Basques are in the Pyrenees and derive from the Cro Magnon. The reference to "men of South France" below as refers to Cro Magnon man. The Guanches are the now deceased aborigines of the Canary Islands and are of Cro Magnon descent. So what is the "proposition she is referring to below?

For further facts as to the isolation of the Basques in Europe and their ethnological relations cf. Joly, "Man before Metals," p. 316. B. Davis is disposed to concede, from an examination of the skulls of the Guanches of the Canary Islands and modern Basques, that both belong to a race proper to those ancient islands, of which the Canaries are the remains!! This is a step in advance indeed. De Quatrefages and Hamy also both assign the Cro-Magnon men of South France and the Guanches to one type-a proposition which involves a certain corollary which both these writers may not care to father. (SDii790)

Obviously the proposition that they would not like to father is that the Atlanteans moved both to South France and to the Guanches in the middle of the Ocean. Otherwise, how does one group end up in those two places?.

For a similar statement she comments on Professor Retzius as giving her direct "patent" support:

The following quotation runs with No. (2), but its significance is such and the writer cited so authoritative, that it deserves a place to itself:- "With regard to the primitive dolichocephalæ [ those who have a head unusually long (front to back) relative to width (as do Cro Magnons) ] of America, I entertain a hypothesis still more bold, namely, that they are nearly related to the Guanches of the Canary Islands, and to the Atlantic populations of Africa, the Moors, Tuaricks, Copts, which Latham comprises under the name of Egyptian-Atlantidæ. We find one and the same form of skull in the Canary Islands, in front of the African coast, and in the Carib islands, on the opposite coast which faces Africa. The colour of the skin on both sides of the Atlantic is represented in these populations as being of a reddish-brown." (Professor Retzius, "Smithsonian Report," 1859, p. 266.)

(The Tuaricks mentioned in the above paragraph are the Tuaregs mentioned still earlier as descended from the Cro Magnons.)

If, then, Basques and Cro-Magnon Cave-Men are of the same race as the Canarese Guanches, it follows that the former are also allied to the aborigines of America. This is the conclusion which the independent investigations of Retzius, Virchow, and de Quatrefages necessitate. The Atlantean affinities of these three types become patent. (SDii791)

Here she says it again in shorter form:

A race which MM. de Quatrefages and Hamy regard as a branch of the same stock whence the Canary Island Guanches sprung-offshoots of the Atlanteans, in short. (SDii678)

Here she is quite clear:

The Guanches of the Canary Islands were lineal descendants of the Atlanteans. This fact will account for the great stature evidenced by their old skeletons, as well as by those of their European congeners the Cro-Magnon Palæolithic men. (SDii791)

And finally, she claims all of European paleolithic man as Atlantean:

Palæolithic European man of the Miocene and Pliocene times was a pure Atlantean, as we have previously stated. The Basques are, of course, of a much later date than this, but their affinities, as here shown, go far to prove the original extraction of their remote ancestors. (SDii790)

Reed Carson

DNA and Atlantis


The previous newsletter discussed Cro Magnon man and showed that Blavatsky had correctly noted that the Guanches of the Canary Islands and the Basques of the Pyrenees were Cro Magnon. Today we also know that the Berbers of Morocco are descended from Cro Magnon. Blavatsky went on to note that this also connected the Cro Magnons with Atlantis. Since Cro Magnon had only been discovered, at most, 20 years before she was writing, that showed a very fast notation of what was significant and where the truth lay.

Specifically, this newsletter will take the following statement of Blavatsky and vindicate it by recent DNA discoveries - showing, amongst other things, that the Basque of the Pyrenees in Spain and France do have some ancient connection with North America. Again the Atlantean connection will be obvious.

If, then, Basques and Cro-Magnon Cave-Men are of the same race as the Canarese Guanches, it follows that the former are also allied to the aborigines of America. This is the conclusion which the independent investigations of Retzius, Virchow, and de Quatrefages necessitate. The Atlantean affinities of these three types become patent. (SDii791)

It is mitochondrial DNA analysis that now confirms her views that she had supported back then with her Cro Magnon data.

MITO WHAT?

To show what mitochondrial DNA analysis is, and its advantages over human DNA, we should first discuss human DNA (known as hDNA). DNA is of course a molecule that encodes all the information that specifies exactly what your body is on the physical level. You may know that DNA as a molecule is shaped like a long ladder where the two sides of the ladder are twisted. The steps of the ladder are made from any of four combinations of molecules. The exact sequence of the steps of the ladder (which of the four choices were selected at each step) represents the information encoded by the DNA.

Every cell in the 30 trillion cells of our body contains a copy of that DNA molecule. The "ladder" that is the DNA molecule is exceedingly long for humans, being a ladder with 3 billion steps. Since it is a ladder with 3 billion steps it is difficult to work with.

While passing by human DNA you might be interested in another observation. The DNA molecule is wound tight. Only a tiny part of the human cell is composed of the nucleus of the cell. DNA is a still smaller part of the nucleus. The cells themselves are tiny. For example, a brain cell is 1/10,000 th of an inch. So the DNA is indeed very small. After thinking of these DNA as very small it tends to surprise people that if one of these ladders were unwound and stretched out, it would extend a full six feet! The reason is that 3 billions steps makes a very long ladder. (While we are at it, it becomes staggering to think of 30 trillion 6 foot ladders in each of our bodies. And we are instructed by the Darwinists that the 30 billion 6 foot ladders came about by chance?)

Still there is the question, what is mitochondial DNA? Each mitochondrion (plural is mitochondria) is a separate bacteria. Each of our cells (except blood cells) contains hundreds to many thousands of mitochondria. The mitochondria perform a critical function for our body. They convert sugar in the form of a glucose molecule, into energy. As such, the mitochondria are the basis of life.

Since they are a separate bacteria, they have their own DNA that differs from human DNA. The mitochondrial DNA ladder has only 16,569 steps! Therefore it is much more conducive to use in research than is human DNA. It is abbreviated as mtDNA.

Since the DNA of a mitochondion is not human, where does it come from when a new human is born? The answer is that the newly born child has taken some mitochondia from the mother - not the father.

Now things get interesting. The DNA of the mitochondria mutate. They mutate at a well understood and predictable rate. By analyzing the mtDNA of living humans and comparing it to other humans, we can determine the lineage of the mothers. Then we can take ancient samples of mtDNA, say from a tooth or bone that is thousands of years old, and begin to study ancient migration patterns. In some cases this analysis of mtDNA conflicts with the standing paradigms of archeology. Very noticeably this has occurred concerning the origin of American Indians.

EDGAR CAYCE

In some cases the statement made by Edgar Cayce while in trance have a high degree of similarity to the teachings brought by Blavatsky. For example, Cayce said that Atlantis sunk in the year 10,014 BC. Theosophy also gives a specific year that is several hundred years later. So though the two years differ, in perspective, Casey's date is highly similar to Theosophy's date for the sinking of Atlantis.

It is actually a bit complicated to derive Theosophy's exact year so I will postpone that interesting question for a subsequent newsletter. When that time comes I will also discuss in detail the recent remarkable estimate by science for that sinking. It comes so close to Theosophy's date as to seem uncanny.

Meanwhile, the followers of Edgar Cayce have observed the recent mtDNA discoveries and in a number of places noted their relevance to evaluating the statements of Edgar Cayce. Those discoveries are also similarly relevant to evaluating the statements of Blavatsky.

Cayce made a number of statements about how people from Atlantis went to surrounding locations for various purposes. His statements highly conflicted with North American archeologists.

Amongst North American archeologists it is strongly held orthodox dicta that the Western Hemisphere before Columbus was only inhabited by individuals whose ancestors came to that land by passage across the Bering Strait no earlier than 9,500 BC. Archeologists who held otherwise were likely to have their careers destroyed due to such daring divergence. It happened that archeologists in South America found numerous sites in South America that proved otherwise but that only caused the north american archeologists to discredit the south american.

This archeological litmus test became so strict that it became known as the "Clovis curtain", named after a certain archeological site. The Clovis curtain was not to be lifted. All were to have come over the Bering Strait and from no where else and definitely not earlier than 9,500BC.

Cayce asserted otherwise that people had come to North America from Atlantis and much earlier than 9,000 BC.

From a Theosophical point of view, there is nothing impossible about Cayce's claims. Of course people could come to North America from Atlantis and much earlier than the Clovis curtain permitted. Theosophy would also allow Lemurians to reach South America.

Blavatsky also has an opinion on this Bering Strait issue. The following quote may not be well known.

Must we fall in the old rut and suppose no other means of populating the Western Hemisphere except "by way of Behring's Strait"? Must we still locate a geographical Eden in the East, and suppose a land equally adapted to man and as old geologically, must wait the aimless wanderings of the "lost tribe of Israel" to become populated? ("A land of Mystery" article by Blavatsky published in 1890)

So with this understanding of the lay of the land - albeit a bit complicated - we should hear what mtDNA has to say.

mtDNA TALKS

Interestingly, the original intent of mtDNA studies was to help in better understanding health issues. It came as a shock that this tool could be used to study ancient migration patterns. A prime debate at issue then became the origin of the American Indian.

DNA analysis on Native Americans began in the 1980's but with rapid technological improvements, research intensified in the early 1990s. Several teams of genetics researches at prominent American universities have been conducting numerous studies. Although results from early studies showed the expected Siberian-Asian ancestry of the majority of modern Native American tribes, things took an unexpected turn in 1997. At that point it was found that a small percentage of modern Native Americans have an unusual type of DNA then known to exist only in a few locations in Europe and the Middle East. Subsequent research indicated that the European DNA was not the result of genetic mixing after Columbus. (Mound Builders, by Gregory L . Little, John Van Auken, Lora Little, published 2001 p 60)

Then came the important discovery.

In 1997, a fifth mtDNA haplogroup was identified in Native Americans. This group, called "X," is present in three percent of living Native Americans. Haplogroup X was not then found in Asia, but was found only in Europe and the Middle East where two to four percent of the population carry it. In those areas, the X haplogroup has primarily been found in parts of Spain, Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, and Israel. (ibid p 62)

In a later book, Little et al state that the percent of individuals among the Iroquois with haplogroup X was a striking "nearly 25%".

Not long after [1997], studies were published that had performed mtDNA analysis on the remains of individuals who had been buried in mounds in north central America. Sometime thereafter many studies reported on the testing of ancient remains recovered from burials from other parts of the United States. As with the living Native Americans haplogroup X showed up - in about 4 percent of the remains. But in the Northeast, in the traditional lands of the Iroquois, it was in nearly 25 percent of some tribes as well as in ancient remains. Then haplogroup X was found in several individuals who had died over 8000 years ago in Florida. All these remains were so old that the implications were crystal clear: haplogroup X had to have entered America thousands of years before historical times. (Ancient South America, Little et al, pub 2002, p 50)

This same book published by these authors added the significant new item:

In a 2001 study haplogroup X was identified in ancient remains (6,000-8,000 years old) found in several cemeteries in the traditional area occupied by the Basque - The Pyrenees Mountains of France and Spain. (Ancient South America, by Gregory L. Little, John Van Auken, Lora Little published 2002, p 50.)

That is significant to Casey followers because of all the places that Casey indicates were locations for departing Atlanteans, the Pyrenees were the most frequently referenced in his readings. Theosophists may also observe that the Pyrenees get special mention by Blavatsky relative to Atlantis.

Once the rare and mysterious haplogroup X was shown to be in the Basque population as well as in North America - we have proven what we set out to prove. Blavatsky has been proven right again.

In summary: mitochondrial DNA discoveries show that the Basque population is related to the North American Indian population. Since these results were obtained from 6,000 to 8000 year old cemeteries in the Basque area and since they were also ancient in North America, they were not caused by activities occurring after Columbus. Instead they reveal an ancient connection. The most natural explanation is a common center in Atlantis. Unfortunately we cannot at this time determine the actual haplogroups of Atlantis - we can only determine the haplogroup of the Atlanteans by inference.

We also have an interesting detail concerning when the mtDNA entered North America.

The time estimates on haplogroup X entering America were at first shaky, because too few samples had been taken. But later, it seemed hat haplogoup X entered by 28,000 B.C. and again in 10,000 B.C. (ibid, p 50)

These appear to be waves of immigration from Atlantis. The second wave corresponds to the date of the sinking of Atlantis as given by both Casey and Theosophy. That should count as another supportive discovery.

HAPLOGROUP X IN THE GOPI DESERT

Little et al add some more information of interest:

In July 2001, a research letter was published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, relating that a few people with the "X" type had been identified in a tribe located in extreme southern Siberia. These people, called the Altasians, or Altaics as Russian geneticists refer to them, have always lived in the Gobi Desert area. ...[ the presence of X ] is of ancient origin. (Ancient South America p 50)

Little et al are particularly interested in this because they are finding X in all those places that Casey had identified as destinations for people leaving Atlantis. Theosophy notes that the Atlanteans did go to the Gobi desert though it does not specify the town of Altaics. It offers that information in a number of places with perhaps the most direct describing how advanced individuals found refuge in the area of the Gobi:

A continent [the larger continent of Atlantis] inhabited by two distinct races; distinct physically and especially morally; both deeply versed in primeval wisdom and the secrets of nature; mutually antagonistic in their struggle, during the course and progress of their double evolution. Whence even the Chinese teachings upon the subject, if it is but a fiction? Have they not recorded the existence once upon a time of a holy island beyond the sun (Tcheou), and beyond which were situated the lands of the immortal men? (See de Rougemont, ibid.) Do they not still believe that the remnants of those immortal men-who survived when the holy island had become black with sin and perished-have found refuge in the great desert of Gobi, where they still reside invisible to all, and defended from approach by hosts of Spirits? (SDii372)

One more quote on ancient civilizations around the Gobi I would select out as particularly interesting. It shows how much the occult tradition knows about the subject. Though unusually long, this quote is inherently fascinating. I also like it because at its end it mentions "tall" - thereby lending still more support to the Theosophical scenario of evolution.

Yet the traces of an immense civilization, even in Central Asia, are still to be found. This civilization is undeniably prehistoric. And how can there be civilization without a literature, in some form, without annals or chronicles? Common sense alone ought to supplement the broken links in the history of departed nations. The gigantic, unbroken wall of the mountains that hem in the whole table-land of Tibet, from the upper course of the river Khuan-Khé down to the Kara-Korum hills, witnessed a civilization during millenniums of years, and would have strange secrets to tell mankind. The Eastern and Central portions of those regions - the Nan-Schayn and the Altyne-taga [today known as Altyn-tagh] - were once upon a time covered with cities that could well vie with Babylon. A whole geological period has swept over the land, since those cities breathed their last, as the mounds of shifting sand, and the sterile and now dead soil of the immense central plains of the basin of Tarim testify. The borderlands alone are superficially known to the traveller. Within those table-lands of sand there is water, and fresh oases are found blooming there, wherein no European foot has ever yet ventured, or trodden the now treacherous soil. Among these verdant oases there are some which are entirely inaccessible even to the native profane traveller. Hurricanes may "tear up the sands and sweep whole plains away," they are powerless to destroy that which is beyond their reach. Built deep in the bowels of the earth, the subterranean stores are secure; and as their entrances are concealed in such oases, there is little fear that anyone should discover them, even should several armies invade the sandy wastes where ... But there is no need to send the reader across the desert, when the same proofs of ancient civilization are found even in comparatively populated regions of the same country. The oasis of Tchertchen, for instance, situated about 4,000 feet above the level of the river Tchertchen D'arya, is surrounded with the ruins of archaic towns and cities in every direction. There, some 3,000 human beings represent the relics of about a hundred extinct nations and races - the very names of which are now unknown to our ethnologists. An anthropologist would feel more than embarrassed to class, divide and subdivide them; the more so, as the respective descendants of all these antediluvian races and tribes know as little of their own forefathers themselves, as if they had fallen from the moon. When questioned about their origin, they reply that they know not whence their fathers had come, but had heard that their first (or earliest) men were ruled by the great genii of these deserts. This may be put down to ignorance and superstition, yet in view of the teachings of the Secret Doctrine, the answer may be based upon primeval tradition. Alone, the tribe of Khoorassan claims to have come from what is now known as Afghanistan, long before the days of Alexander, and brings legendary lore to that effect as corroboration. The Russian traveller, Colonel (now General) Prjevalsky, found quite close to the oasis of Tchertchen, the ruins of two enormous cities, the oldest of which was, according to local tradition, ruined 3,000 years ago by a hero and giant; and the other by the Mongolians in the tenth century of our era. "The emplacement of the two cities is now covered, owing to shifting sands and the desert wind, with strange and heterogeneous relics; with broken china and kitchen utensils and human bones. The natives often find copper and gold coins, melted silver, ingots, diamonds, and turquoises, and what is the most remarkable-broken glass. . . . ." "Coffins of some undecaying wood, or material, also, within which beautifully preserved embalmed bodies are found. . . . The male mummies are all extremely tall powerfully built men with long waving hair. (SDxxxii-xxxiii)

END OF THE CLOVIS CURTAIN?

After exploring that Altaic detail, we can return to the issue of the Clovis curtain.

In 1997 it looked as though the Clovis curtain had been dealt a fatal blow. With haplogroup X now discovered in North America and not in Asia, the Bering Strait explanation was insufficient. However, after X was discovered amongst the Altaics, the Clovis folks at least had an arguing point. However, geneticists, as opposed to paleoanthropologists, agree that the Altaic haplogroup X is not from Asia. So the arguing point of the Clovis folks is not very sound. Thus the mtDNA is supportive of Blavatsky's position against the Bering-Strait-only position but to be fair, there is still controversy. To convince yourself based on the evidence that she was right just read about the South American archeology in "Ancient South America." Of course, once one concludes positively on the existence of Atlantis, then obviously the Clovis curtain is an erroneous position.

In contrast to Clovis, the following paragraph shows Blavatsky's presentation of the basic idea that a land mass in the middle of the Atlantic had refugees moving both East and West from one central source. The time sequence of this article of hers is interesting. She started her public Theosophical work in 1875. In 1877 she published Isis Unveiled and gave a couple pages of reference to Atlantis. This article of hers published in 1880 states a very fundamental idea in all of Atlantology. Then in 1888 her Secret Doctrine contained much reference to Atlantis. For those who don't know, Theosophy asserts there was once an Atlantis of continental size, it broke apart and sunk, and finally the remaining island sank around 10,000 BC.

Who knows, then, but that Jules Verne's fanciful idea regarding the lost continent Atlanta may be near the truth? Who can say, that where now is the Atlantic Ocean, formerly did not exist a continent, with its dense population, advanced in the arts and sciences, who, as they found their land sinking beneath the waters, retired, part east and part west, populating thus the two new hemispheres? This would explain the similarity of their archæological structures and races and their differences, modified by and adapted to the character of their respective climates and countries. Thus could the llama and the camel differ, although of the same species; thus the algoraba and espino trees; thus the Iroquois Indians of North America and the most ancient Arabs call the constellation of the "Great Bear" by the same name; thus various nations, cut off from all intercourse or knowledge of each other, divide the zodiac in twelve constellations, apply to them the same names, and the Northern Hindoos apply the name Andes to their Himalayan mountains, as did the South Americans to their principal chain. (Land of Mystery, article by Blavatsky 1880)

GUANCHES AND mtDNA

Being emboldened by the successful finds of Little et al, I decided to "google" the phrase "mtDNA Guanches." I wondered if another loop of proof could be tied. I found that the field continues to produce results that diverge from classical paleoanthropological views. It appears that it would be necessary to research down to the level of actual molecular sequences in the mtDNA ladder to determine what has actually been found so far. Traditional anthropology continues to influence how the data is interpreted. Below is perhaps the most useful quote on the subject. Notice we are not told anything about X that may have been in the Canaries. We do not know how close U is to X. That information might be very interesting for Theosophists. (When the quote references "U6b1" that means haplogroup U with subgroups "6b1.")

The quote does support Theosophy in that the research finds the Guanches of the Canary Islands are related to the Berbers as was said in the previous newsletter and as was asserted by Blavatsky. However, effectively the Berbers do not have Guanch blood and the Guanches do not have Berber blood. Maybe that is because they separated long ago.

You may find the last sentence interesting. Orthodox science thinks the Canary Islands were inhabited most likely by the Berbers. After all - where else is there? They won't allow Atlantis as the source of the Guanches. So even though they find the results described - still the results will be construed according to the orthodox view.

The sequences retrieved show that the Guanches possessed U6b1 lineages that are in the present day Canarian population, but not in Africans. In turn, U6b, the phylogenetically closest ancestor found in Africa, is not present in the Canary Islands. Comparisons with other populations relate the Guanches with the actual inhabitants of the Archipelago and with Moroccan Berbers. This shows that, despite the continuous changes suffered by the population (Spanish colonisation, slave trade), aboriginal mtDNA lineages constitute a considerable proportion of the Canarian gene pool. Although the Berbers are the most probable ancestors of the Guanches, it is deduced that important human movements have reshaped Northwest Africa after the migratory wave to the Canary Islands. (http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v12/n2/pdf/5201075a.pdf)

This little foray into research of mtDNA and the Guanches revealed that the field of mtDNA research is exciting, growing, not at all "mature", and filled with controversy. Clearly we should keep our eyes on the field and watch what it produces.

So while traditional science will not accept Atlantis - we have their bones, the Cro Magnon, and now it appears that we have their mitochondrial DNA in haplogroup X.

Reed Carson

Evidence from the Floor of the Ocean


In a 1954 issue of Geological Society of America, Bulletin, Bruce Heezen and others reported on a seamount - an underwater mountain - that has been named Atlantis by geologists and is in the Atlantic Ocean. It has been found to have been an island about 12,000 years - exactly the time specified by Plato! This abstract is given:

The Atlantis, Cruiser, and Great Meteor seamounts rise from a broad ridge or plateau which extends from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to 37°N. 32°W. southeast to Great Sea mount at 30°N. 28°W. The Atlantis Sea mount, briefly explored 1947 and 1948, was found by echo sounding and submarine photography to have a fairly flat bedrock summit area at about 180 fathoms covered in some cases by current-rippled sand. Its slopes are covered with sand or ooze symmetrically rippled at 400 fathoms and marked by slump features in 570 fathoms. A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000   years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))

In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist, 66:540, 1975)

Although they make no such fanciful claim from their results as to have discovered the mythical mid-Atlantic landmass, an internationa group of oceanographers has now convincingly confirmed preliminary findings that a sunken block of continent lies in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery comes from analysing dredge samples taken along the line of the Vema offset fault, a long east-west fracture zone lying between Africa and South America close to latitude 11øN.

The article describes the first report of "shallow-water limestone  fragments" from the Vema Fracture in the Atlantic:

Four years ago two University of Miami workers, J. Honnorez and E. Bonatti, first reported the recovery of shallow-water limestone fragments from the Vema fracture zone. This limestone contained minerals indicative of a nearby granitic source unlikely to occur on the ocean floor. Neither water currents, nor more esoteric transport systems, could explain the presence of these rocks so far from the modern boundaries of the continents. The two researchers believed that, instead, the granitic grains must have been deposited close to their source.

Then the recent researchers are noted:

Now, with C. Emiliani of Miami, Paul Bronniman of the University of Geneva, M.A. Furrer of Esso Production Research, Begles, and A.A. Meyerhof, a consulting geologist from Tulsa, USA, they have carried out a more searching analysis of the dredge samples (Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 26, p.8)

Finally he notes the evidence for activity in less than 30 meters of water, and even some evidence for activity in soil.

The Limestones include traces of shallow-water fossils - foraminifera, green algae, bits of gastropods, and crab coprolites - implying formation in water, in one instance, less than 30 m deep. Furthermore, the limestones have been recrystallized from a high to low-magnesium form of calcite. Oxygen and carbon-isotope ratios prove conclusively that this process must have taken place subaerially [on land surface]  "through the action of meteoric water enriched in light carbon               while passing through a soil zone ..." A pitted limestone sample bears evidence of tidal action. Some 50 km east of the dredge site along the Vema fracture the team also recovered a thick-shelled, shallow-water, bivalve fossil from a depth of over 2000 m.

The coprolites in the sample indicate a Mesozoic age for the limestone which may well be the sedimentary capping on a residual continental block left behind as the [??] spread out into an ocean. The granitic minerals could thus have come from the bordering continents while the ocean was still in its infancy. Vertical movements made by the block appear to have raised it above sea level at some period during its history.

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.)


Destruction by Fire Or Water


In Plato's dialogue "Timaeus" we might just pass by a simple little statement. In that dialogue Plato has Critias say

"There have been, and will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes; the greatest have been brought about by the agencies of fire and water, and other lesser ones by innumerable other causes."

Is this merely a note about the kinds of destruction available to Nature or is there some philosophy in it? Plato was an initiate according to Blavatsky so we may suspect there is deeper knowledge in that statement.

Students of Theosophy will know that Theosophy asserts that the major destructions ALTERNATE between fire and water. I think she asserts that idea several places in her work The Secret Doctrine. Unfortunately search engines and the best index do not make it easy for me to retrieve those references.

Here are two such references and they specifically echo the words of Critias with a little more flavor added (they just don't specifically assert the "alternation"):

"Each of these has to become the witness of one of the periodical and ever-recurring cataclysms (by fire and water) that close the cycle of every Root-race." (SDii309)

"Toward the very close of the race, as their mixed progeny furnishes the first pioneers of a new and a higher race, there comes the last and supreme struggle during which the "Sons of Darkness" are usually exterminated by some great cataclysm of nature — by either fire or water." (BCW p 262)

Here is one more quote from Blavatsky that, though obscure, asserts the ALTERNATION involved in the means of destruction

"At the close of every Root-Race there comes a cataclysm, in turn by fire or water." (BCW VOL 14, p81)

This tradition is apparently not just in Plato - it is around the world.

"The Mexicans had, and still have, the tradition of the four-fold destruction of the world by fire and water, just as the Egyptians had, and the Hindus have, to this day." (SDii311)

Now this deserves a more careful look. We do not normally think of a sequence of cataclysms where they specifically alternate in their mode. We think disasters are disasters. They are independent of each other. How the next one happens is independent of how the previous one happened. But not so according to occultism as presented by Blavatsky. Here is an asserted mysterious kind of symbolism in Nature.

Destruction by water we can understand - there is a huge flood or much more likely a major sinking of a land mass - slowly or quickly.

But what would destruction by fire mean? A large scale forest fire hardly seems to be at the level of the apparent philosophy. Is this all some symbolism that is not intended to describe the actual workings of real nature? Could we ever go about finding any scientific proof of such things and what would that proof be like?

These questions were all resting quietly in the background of my mind - in a section marked "do not disturb".

Then recently I happened upon an citation in a scientific book.

Some Theosophical background first. In Theosophical terms, Blavatsky is saying that the continent (not island) of Atlantis was destroyed by water. It sank. The preceding continent was Lemuria, largely in the Pacific. It was destroyed by fire.

Now the quote from science. It was not a forest fire.

"This submergence was apparently yet another facet of the global catastrophe under discussion and, as in so many other areas, here also it was accompanied by stupendous volcanic activity. Records of this were gathered by the Swedish survey ship Albatross in 1947, when for several hundred miles southeast of Sri Lanka, it sailed over a vast and continuous plateau of hardened lava. This filled almost all the earlier valleys on the sea-bed and gave the ocean floor there a singularly level surface. One recent authority regarded this lava as being very probably the undersea counterpart of the Deccan trap of India, where basaltic lava several thousand feet thick continuously covers an area of not less that 250,000 square miles. According to HF Blanford, the eruption of this material may have been synchronous with the sinking of Wallace's Southern Continent. ... (Cataclysm! p 34)

Wallace's Southern Continent is effectively a reference to Lemuria.

Now we can understand. The fire of volcanism was involved and the evidence is the lava.

This provides an avenue for yet more instructive research.

Reed Carson

Donnelly's cross-sectional map of Atlantic Ocean


 

This map is from frontispiece of Ignatius Donnelly's "Atlantis: The Antediluvian World". It is only in earlier editions of that book.


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